Figure A. Global map highlighting aridity and the locations for the three regions of XPaths' case study

The case studies are strategically located in the drylands of countries spanning different levels of income, institutional and historical contexts: Senegal, Brazil, and Spain (Figure A).

The challenges in these three countries are connected to the economic and political interests in the European Union (EU) and Sweden, particularly through trade and financial flows. We will therefore explore how the EU and Swedish societies can better support the achievement of the SDGs in the three case studies.

A focal study area (Figure A) in each country was selected using the following criteria. They must (a) include a diversity of dryland agricultural production systems (for export and internal use) challenged by water scarcity, with the presence of different actors and conflicts among them related to water resources; (b) coincide with a regional governance structure adequate for mobilizing actors around an implementation plan for the SDGs; (c) be located in places where proposal researchers have local connections.

Based on these criteria, our study areas per country are detailed in Figure A. In Brazil, we selected the Sao Francisco River Basin, which covers several states and is largely located in the semi-arid (Figure A). In Spain, we selected the southeast of the country, the driest region in continental Europe (Figure A). And in Senegal, the administrative regions of Louga and Matam are in the north of the country (Figure A).